Android development

Android Application Components

Android Application Components Basic Components Application components are the essential building blocks of an Android application. These components are loosely coupled by the application manifest file Android Manifest.xml that describes each component of the application and how they interact. Components Description Activities They dictate the UI and handle the user interaction to the smart phone screen Services…

Android development

Android OS Architecture

Android OS Architecture An Android operating system is a stack of software components which is roughly divided into five sections and four main layers as shown below in the architecture diagram. The components of an Android operating system are Linux kernel Libraries Android Runtime Application Framework Applications Linux kernel A bottom layer of Android operating…

5g technology

Smart Antenna Techniques Part 3

Smart Antennas and Beam-forming, Understanding with GNU: Part 3 Recap from part-2 of this article Smart antenna systems or sometimes known as adaptive antenna array systems are composed of two major blocks; An adaptive antenna array block and a Signal processing block. Signal processing block is responsible for finding and adapting array beamforming weights and…

5g technology

Smart Antenna Techniques Part 2

Smart Antennas and Beamforming, Understanding with GNU : Part 2 Recap from Part-1 of This Article There are four types of antenna field regions. Out of those four regions, we discussed radiation pattern of far-field region of an antenna. Also, we plotted a 3D radiation pattern of an antenna with a given radiation intensity. If…

5g technology

Smart Antenna Techniques Part 1

Smart Antennas and Beamforming, Understanding with GNU : Part 1 Introduction and Definitions: LTE transmission mode 7,8 and 9 defines fixed precoder based beamforming and adaptive precoder based beamforming.  The main advantage of beamforming and smart antenna system is that by using the focused beam, interference can be reduced and wanted signal can be effectively…

5g technology

Transport Network

Optical Fiber Link Budget Calculation Fiber optic networks is a very basic form of terrestrial broadband transmission platform which is capable of delivers multimedia services such as voice, video, and data to business and residential users. Originally, an optical fiber was used to carry long-haul services across the continents because it’s extensive bandwidth offered with…

5g technology

Network Virtualization

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) Architecture Classical MNO’s network is crowded with a variety of proprietary hardware elements e.g. routers, switches, Packet Core nodes, and Access nodes. Whenever it wants to launch a new network service it often requires yet another hardware element. Finding the space and power to accommodate this new hardware is becoming increasingly…