Internet of Things

Beacons Technology – What it is, How it works and Its Applications and Challenges

January 31, 2019

 What it is Beacons Technology –How it works and Its Applications and Challenges Imagine! You come back home after a tiring day from office and are warmly welcomed with a cup of tea. Your home senses your presence and it switches on the lights as you enter and turns on the music system to your favorite […]

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Maximum Coupling Loss (MCL) and Maximum Path Loss (MPL)

January 31, 2019

Maximum Coupling Loss has been chosen by 3GPP as the metric to evaluate coverage of a radio access technology. In theory, it can be defined as the maximum loss in the conducted power level that a system can tolerate and still be operational (defined by a minimum acceptable received power level). MCL can be calculated […]

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Narrow Band-IOT UE Attach Call Flow Messaging

January 31, 2019

When an NB-IOT UE accesses a cell, it follows the same principle as for LTE: It first searches a cell on an appropriate frequency. Decode NPSS and NSSS for NCellID. After decoding NCellID, UE decodes the NB-MIB Information transmitted over NPBCH, but there it can get to know NB-LTE deployment mode i.e. In-band, Guard-band or Standalone, the schedulingInfoSIB1, […]

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Narrow Band-Physical Broadcast Channel (NPBCH)

January 31, 2019

NPBCH stands for narrowband physical broadcast channel similar to PBCH in LTE Technology. The Narrow Band-Physical Broadcast Channel (NPBCH) is used to deliver the NB-IoT Master Information Block (MIB), which provides essential information for the NB-IoT UE to operate in the NB-IoT network. Narrow Band-Physical Broadcast Channel (NPBCH) uses a 640 ms TTI, but within […]

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Narrow Band Synchronization Signals (NPSS and NSSS)

January 31, 2019

The NPSS and NSSS help UE to synchronize downlink to an NB-IoT cell. These are transmitted in certain subframes based on an 80-ms repetition interval. By synchronizing to NPSS and NSSS, the device will be able to detect the cell identity number (NB-IOT PCI). NPSS and NSSS are designed to allow devices to use a […]

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Narrow Band IoT Frame Structure

January 31, 2019

NB- IoT frame structure is illustrated in below picture.  At the highest level, it starts with the hyper frame cycle where one hyperframe cycle has 1024 hyper frames and each consisting of 1024 frames. One frame consists of 10 sub-frames and each subframe is dividable into two slots each of 0.5 ms which is similar […]

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NB-IoT Frequency Bands (As per 3GPP Rel. 13, 14 and 15)

January 31, 2019

3GPP has defined a set of frequency bands for which NB-IoT can be used. 3GPP TS 36.101  from Release 13 provides the list of the supported bands: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 28, 66 and Release 14 added the bands: 11, 25, 31 and 70. Later, 3GPP Release 15 […]

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Narrow Band LTE- NB-IoT

January 31, 2019

NB-IoT or NB-LTE is a new 3GPP radio-access technology. It is not fully backward compatible with existing 3GPP devices however it is designed to achieve excellent co-existence performance with legacy GSM, GPRS, and LTE technologies. NB-LTE requires 200 kHz minimum system bandwidth for both downlink and uplink, respectively. The choice of minimum system bandwidth enables […]

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LoRa – Device Re-activation Call Flow (Rejoin Procedure)

January 30, 2019

LoRa Technology supports the handling and configuration of rejoin-requests for LoRa End Devices. Using a rejoin-request, a device is able to request the network-server to re-activate, without being ‘disconnected’ until receiving the activation. In other words, when it doesn’t receive a new activation, the device will continue to use the old security context. With the […]

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IOT_Delhi (Internet of things) : Introduction

January 29, 2019

Internet of things has been here for years, but now with Smart Cities deployments, IOT is being seen as the next line of business opportunity for many organization. Many organizations including giants are creating massive infrastructure for the Internet of things (sensors, access, gateways, back-end, and data analytics). Example: Comcast: Introduction to their latest portfolio addition MachineQ […]

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